一、Motivation for learning 学习动机
In second language learning as in every other field of human learning, motivation is the crucial force which determines whether a learner embarks on a task at all, how much energy he devotes to it, and how long he perseveres.
1.Communicative need for a second language
The primary motive for learning a language is that it provides a means of comunication. A person is therfore most likely to be drawn towards learning a second language if he perceives a clear communicative need for it.
2.Attitudes towards the second language community
When a learner is favourably disposed towards the speakers of the language he is learning, there are two reasons why hie motivation is likely to benefit.
First,the learner with more favourable attitudes will wish for more intensive contact with second language community.?
The first reason concerned mainly the?purpose?of learning a second language , the second concerns its?nature.
There is a close link between the way we speak and the way we perceive our identity and our world. When we try to adopt new speech patterns,we are to some extent giving up markers of our identity in order to adopt those of another cultural group.
One of the factors influencing how we experience the process is our attitude towardes the foreign culture itself.?
If this attitude is negative, there may be strong internal barriers against learning, and if learning has to take place because of external compulsion, it may proceed only to the minimum level required by these external demands.
3.Integrative and instrumental motivation
A learner with integrative motivation has a genuine interest in the second language community. He wants to learn their language in order to communicate with them more satisfactorily and to gain closer contact with them and their culture.
A learner with instrumental motivation is more interested in how the second language can be a useful instrument towards furthering other goals, such as gaining a necessary qualification or improving employment prospects.
二、Opportunities for learning 学习机会
1、Emotional climate of learning situations
In an environment where learners feel anxious or insecure, there are likely to be psychological barriers to communication. Also, if?anxiety?rises above a certain level, it is an obstacle to the learning process.?
Unfortunately, the two kinds of situation where second language learning tasks place most often—the classroom and the second language community—can easily generate situations where learners feel overanxious.
2、The nature of the linguistic input
Now,it is often proposed that the ideal input for acquiring a second language is similar to the received by the children: comprehensible, relevant to their immediate interests, not too complex but not strictly graded, either.?
Exposed to this kind of input, the learner’s natural acqusition mechanisms can operate, picking out the structures for which they are ready at any given time.
三、Ability to learn? 学习能力
1、Cognitive factors 认知因素
There is a link between general intelligence(IQ) and second language lerning ability.
The ability to identity and remember sounds
The ability to memorise words
The ability to recognise how words function grammatically in sentence
The ability to induce grammatical rules from language examples
It is often suggested that an extrovert person is especially well suited to second language learning.
For exanple, they may become involved in more social interaction, attract more attention from their teachers,and be less inhabited when asked to display their proficiency. They may perform more confidently in communication situations,whchever language they are using.
For many peopel, it is almost axiomatic that children can learn a second language better than adults. The most commmon explanation for these observations is that there is a“critical period”,during which the brain is flexible and language learning can occur naturally and easily。
四、Active learning strategies 积极的学习策略
Successful language learner employ a wide variety of strategies which demonstrate their active involement in learning. For example, when the teacher puts a question to another student, they often think out their own answer and compare it with the answer accepted by the teacher. When learning or producing dialogues,they make efforts to identify with their foreign language roles and to pay close sttention to the meaning of the language they are using.