西点的老师们也很苦恼，退出的人中和学业无关，和体能无关，好像没有任何规律。最后编辑通过与一位在西点工作多年的心理学家Mike交谈后，得出的结论是，退出者的身上缺少一种永不放弃的态度。Those who dropped out of training rarely did so from lack of ability. Rather, what ?mattered, Mike said,was a“never give up”attitude.
在西点军校的这个发现，让编辑想去了解军校以外的事情，所以她去采访了很多牛人。“I interview leaders in business, art, athletics, journalism, academia, medicine, and law。”她这样做的目的就是想要知道“Who are the people at the very top of your field? What are they like? What do you think makes them special?”
最后她发现“It was this combination of passion and perseverance that made high achievers special. In a word, they had grit.”
I sat down and looked over my interview notes. And I started writing questions that captured, sometimes verbatim, descriptions of what it means to have grit.
Half of the questions were about perseverance. They asked how much you agree with statements like“I have overcome setbacks to conquer an important challenge”and“I finish whatever I begin.”
The other half of the questions were about passion. They asked whether your“interests change from year to year”and the extent to which you“have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short time but later lost interest.”
What emerged was the Grit Scale—a test that, when taken honestly,measures the extent to which you approach life with grit.
“My advice for you is, figure out what you enjoy doing most in life, and then try to do it full-time. Life is short. Follow your passion.”
In one of my earliest research studies, I found that grittier kids at the National Spelling Bee practiced more than their less gritty competitors. These extra hours of practice, in turn, explained their superior performance in final competition.
This finding made a lot of sense. As a math teacher, I’d observed a huge range in effort among my students. Some kids spent, quite literally, zero minutes a week on their homework; others studied for hours a day. Considering all the studies showing that gritty people typically stick with their commitments longer than others, it seemed like the major advantage of grit was, simply, more time on task.
但是练习并不是盲目的重复性的练习，练习需要刻意练习（“刻意练习”这个概念在美国也是很流行的啊，上一本书so good that they can’t ignore you。里面也谈到了这个概念）。
?A clearly defined stretch goal
?Full concentration and effort
?Immediate and informative feedback
?Repetition with reflection and refinement
Interest is one source of passion. Purpose—the intention to contribute to the well-being of others—is another. The mature passions of gritty people depend on both.
What is hope?
One kind of hope is the expectation that tomorrow will be better than today. It’s the kind of hope that has us yearning for sunnier weather, or a smoother path ahead. It comes without the burden of responsibility. The onus is on the universe to make things better.
Grit depends on a different kind of hope. It rests on the expectation that our own efforts can improve our future. I have a feeling tomorrow will be better is different from I resolve to make tomorrow better. The hope that gritty people have has nothing to do with luck and everything to do with getting up again.